The landlocked country Nepal in central Asia that borders on Tibet and China in the north and India in the south was founded as a monarchy in 1768. Nepal extends across the Himalayan mountain region on an area of approx. 147,181 km² that in total spreads over 3,000 km from Pakistan to Myanmar. Especially the stunning mountain setting with the world’s highest mountains like the Mount Everest with a height of 8,848 m or the mountains Kanchenjunga (8,586 m), Lhotse (8,516 m) and Makalu (8,485 m) along the northern border make a journey to Nepal a truly fascinating experience. With a surface area of over 40% in an altitude of above 3,000 m, Nepal is the second highest region worldwide after Tibet. From east to west the country extends on about 885 km with a maximum width from north to south of about 241 km. Besides the dominant mountain region, the landscape in the southern direction changes to a lower alpine foothill region and a subtropical inner valley called Terai. Nepal’s capital city Kathmandu is located quite central along the foothills of the Himalayan mountain range.
In the mountain region in an altitude above 4,000 m temperatures drop below 0°C on a regular basis so that the landscape is hidden underneath a cover of perpetual ice and snow. Further south the climate becomes more moderate and the country is mainly influenced by the monsoon with temperatures averaging between 10 and 24°C in the foothill region and even ascending up to 25-32°C in the subtropical Terai region. During monsoon season from October/November to February/April round about 80-90% of the annual precipitation is coming down while the rest of the year is relatively dry.
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