Indonesien: ein Land mit vielen Vulkanen, Gebirgen und Inseln.


Highlights in Indonesia

Geography of Indonesia

Indonesia is the largest archipelago country in the world. The state extends over a land area of around 1.9 million km² and territorial waters covering approximately 3.3 million km². The national territory has an east-west extension of 5,120 km and a north-south extension of 1,760 km.

The country is spread over more than 17,500 islands. Several of these islands, such as New Guinea, Borneo, Kalimantan (Borneo) and Sumatra, are among the largest islands in the world. The waters of Indonesia are characterised by many narrow straits, shallow side seas, sea basins and waterways.

Located on both sides of the equator, Indonesia is located between the Malay Peninsula, the Philippines and Australia. Indonesia is surrounded by the Pacific Ocean to the east and the Indian Ocean to the west. The majority of Indonesia belongs to the Asian continent. However, one small part, the part of Indonesia on the island of New Guinea, belongs to the Australian continent.

Eine Bucht der Küstenregion von Indonesien ist von hohen, steilen Klippen umgeben.
Die tropischen Regenwälder von Indonesien gehören zu den wichtigsten Regenwaldgebieten der Erde.
Ein ruhiges Gewässer mit begrüntem Ufer in Indonesien, Südost Asien. Im Hintergrund erstreckt sich ein Berg, der bewaldet ist.


Originally, the modern island region as we know it today was connected to the Asian mainland. First after the ice age, the archipelago was formed. Indonesia is located at the borders of two continental plates (tectonic plates): The Eurasian plates and the Australian plates.

In Indonesia, the Pacific Ring of Fire (a volcanic belt that is responsible for 90% of the world's earthquakes) and the Alpine Mountain Belt (which was formed during the last global mountain-building phase in the Earth's history) meet. As a result, Indonesia is strongly volcanic and highly mountainous. Natural phenomena such as volcanic eruptions, earthquakes and tsunamis still occur today.

Especially in Java, the fertile soils are used for agriculture. Due to the tropical climate, this utilization can be intensified.

Bromo, ein Stratovulkan auf der indonesischen Insel Java, ist einer der aktivsten Vulkane auf Java. Er ist 2329 m hoch und liegt im Nationalpark Bromo-Tengger-Semeru.

Travel Tips and Trivia for Indonesia

Climate on Indonesia

Due to its geographical location on both sides of the equator, Indonesia has a distinctly tropical climate.

Borneo, Sumatra, West Java, Papua, the Moluccas and Sulawesi have an ever-humid tropical climate. There are no seasons as commonly known in Europe. Consistent daytime temperatures are characteristic here. The average daytime temperature is always between 25 °C and 27 °C throughout the year. In addition, there is a humidity of 95 %, which is also called tropical sultriness. The annual rainfall is between 2000 mm and 4000 mm.

The climate on Java, the Lesser Sunda Islands and the Aru Islands is characterised by two monsoon seasons. The dry season (called winter monsoon) is from June to September, the wet season from October to April. During the wet phases, there can be up to 50 mm of rainfall per day. This often leads to flooding. These areas also have consistently high daytime temperatures, but these can drop significantly overnight. This means that the temperature can fluctuate by up to 12 °C within 24 hours.

Due to the varying altitudes, there are regional differences. In the mountains above 5,000 m in New Guinea, there are even snowfalls.

Flora and Fauna of Indonesia

The megadiverse country is a biodiversity hotspot. Probably the best-known endemic animal group is the orangutan (pongo). A primate genus of the great apes with reddish-brown fur and a physique strongly adapted to the tree-dwelling way of life. All three species, the Bornean orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus), the Sumatran orangutan (Pongo abelii) and the Tapanuli orangutan (Pongo tapanuliensis) are critically endangered. The orangutans' habitats are mainly destroyed by logging, the establishment of agricultural land and palm oil production. Other endemic species in Indonesia face the same threats. Only a few Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae) and Java panther (Panthera pardus melas) individuals are left in the wild.

In Sumatra and Borneo, elephants occur in their natural habitat.

Ein Asiatischer Elefant in der Seitenansicht geht nach link. Er ist vom dichten Grün des indonesischen Dschungels umgeben.
Ein Orang-Uta Weibchen, beheimatet in den Regenwälder Borneos und Sumatras in Indonesien, säugt ihr Junges.

There are more than 1,500 different bird species in Indonesia. Exceptional species found in bird parks in the archipelago include birds-of-paradise, toucans, hornbills and cockatoos.

Indonesia has the largest rainforest areas in the world. Many rare plants such as orchids or rafflesias grow here. In the mountains, conifers grow, while the coasts are flanked by mangrove forests in many places.

Between the islands in Indonesia runs the so-called Wallace Line, named after its discoverer, the natural scientist Alfred Russel Wallace. It is the biogeographical dividing line that marks the transition zone between Asian and Australian fauna.

Indonesia also has a lot to offer in the marine world. Seahorses, puffer fish, rays, sharks, dolphins, eels, octopus, sea snails, sea snakes, sea turtles, crabs, starfish and corals present Indonesia's stunning underwater world.

Eine Grüne Meeresschildkröte (Chelonia mydas) im tropischen Meer in Indonesien.
Ein Fischschwarm Stachelmakrelen (Carangidae), in tropischen und subtropischen Zonen des Atlantiks und des Indopazifiks, hält sich in Küstennähe auf.

Social Geography of Indonesia

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