The popular travel destination Rio De Janeiro is the capital of Brazil and lies on the coast surrounded by mountains


Highlights in Brazil

Geography of Brazil

Brazil, the largest country in South America, covers an area of 8.5 million square kilometres and has a population of more than 213 million. It borders every other South American country except Chile and Ecuador. Brazil's coastline stretches over 7,491 km and offers breathtaking beaches and islands that attract millions of tourists annually. The country is home to stunning landscapes such as the Amazon rainforest, the Andes and the Mato Grosso highlands. The Amazon Rainforest, the largest rainforest in the world, makes up around 60 per cent of Brazil's territory.

This aerial view of Tradentes shows a settlement with white houses and their red roofs

Moreover, Brazil has many rivers, including the Amazon, the Rio Negro, the Rio Paraguay and the Rio Uruguay, which connect the country to its neighbours. The highest point in Brazil is Pico da Neblina, near the border with Venezuela, at 2,994 metres. As the fifth-largest country in the world, Brazil is home to some of the largest cities in Latin America, including São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro and Brasília. Located on the coast, inland or in the middle of the rainforest, these cities offer different geographical features and challenges.

A cable car leads from one mountain top to the next in Rio De Janerio
The 30-metre-high Cristo Redentor statue in the south of Rio de Janeiro on Mount Corcovado

Geology Brazil

Brazil is a country with a rich geological history dating back millions of years. Most of the country is made up of crystalline rocks derived from the bedrock of the South American Plate. These rocks form the basic mountain formation of the country and are generally older than 570 million years. The most prominent mountain ranges are the Serra do Mar, Serra Geral and Serra da Mantiqueira, which stretch along the coast in southeast Brazil.

Waves crash on the rocks of Fernando De Noronha

Brazil also has large areas of sedimentary rock, formed by the erosion of surrounding mountains and deposits from rivers, lakes and the sea. One example is the sedimentary basin of the Paraná River in southern Brazil. It contains rocks from the Triassic, Jurassic and Cretaceous periods.

Another important geological formation in Brazil is the Amazon Basin, which covers almost half of the country. This region has a complex geological history spanning several epochs. The Amazon basin is characterised by flat plateaus, sandstone cliffs and curvy rivers that flow through wide river valleys.

From the coast of Brazil we look at your archipelago. In the foreground are green branches

Brazil is rich in mineral resources, including iron ore, copper, gold, diamonds and bauxite. There are also significant deposits of nickel, tin, tungsten and other metals. The oil and gas deposits off the Brazilian coast are also of great economic importance.

Travel Tipps and Trivia for Brazil

Climate in Brazil

Brazil's climate is very diverse due to the size of the country and its different geographical features. Brazil spans several climate zones, including tropical, subtropical, humid and semi-arid regions. These different climatic zones affect agriculture, the environment and the living conditions of people in Brazil.

A thin strip of clouds surrounds the mountains of Sao Bento Do Sapucai

In general, Brazil has a tropical climate with high temperatures and humidity. Temperatures vary from region to region. The Amazon rainforest is one of the wettest areas in the world, with very high humidity and stable temperatures throughout the year, hovering around 27 °C.

From the coast of Brazil we look at your archipelago. In the foreground are green branches

During the rainy season, which lasts from November to early April in the south and southeast, and from April to July in the northeast, floods and landslides are common, and roads and bridges might become impassable. The dry season from June to September is very distinctive in some regions, especially in the northeast, where people face water shortages.

Flora and Fauna of Brazil

Wildlife of Brazil

Brazil's wildlife is very diverse and includes a wide range of species, including many endemic and threatened species that require protection. The Amazon rainforest in northern Brazil is renowned for its unique biodiversity, including primates such as capuchin, squirrel and howler monkeys, and mammals such as tapirs, jaguars and sloths.

A spotted jaguar roams Brazil
A caiman holds its prey above the brownish water ochre surface
A green iguana (reptile) moves on the ground in the Pantanal region (Brazil)
A monkey holds on to a tree
An anteater moves from a grassy verge onto a gravel path in Brazil, South America
A reptile of the wildlife of Mato Grosso, Brazil

Brazil is also home to many bird species, including macaws, toucans and hummingbirds. The Pantanal in western Brazil is particularly well known for its birdlife. It is also home to rare animals such as the South American hippopotamus, anteater and puma.

This hummingbird with a shiny green plumage and its long, narrow beak belongs to the fauna of Brazil
Two blue macaws are in a tree hollow or tree hole (half-closed cavity).
A red parrot sitting on a branch

The Brazilian coast is an essential habitat for marine mammals such as dolphins, whales and sea lions. A great variety of fish and corals can be found in the reefs along the coastal regions.

A whale comes to the surface off the coast of Brazil

Vegetation of Brazil

The Amazon Rainforest is the largest contiguous forest in the world and is home to a wide variety of plant species, many of which are found nowhere else in the world. Rubber trees, Brazil nut trees and many species of orchids and bromeliads can be found here.

A radiant pink orchid with several flowers stands in front of a bush
Some palm trees resting in the blue sky in Brazil (Latin America)

In the subtropical forests of southern Brazil, trees such as the araucaria and many species of broadleaf trees grow. In the Cerrado, a tropical savannah region of Brazil, you can find many grasses, shrubs and trees such as the buriti palm and the embauba tree.

The green Amazon rainforest on a cloudy day was photographed from the water

The coastal regions of Brazil are known for their mangrove forests and sand dunes, where various plant species, such as coconut palms and bromeliads, thrive.

Vegetataion Rio Grande Do Norte
An orange orchid illuminated by the sun against a blurred natural background

Many crops, such as coffee, soya and sugar cane, are also grown in Brazil. Furthermore, Brazil is the world's largest producer of oranges and other citrus fruits.

Social Geography of Brazil

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