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Germany

Highlights in Germany

Geography of Germany

With nine neighbouring European countries, Germany is located in the heart of Europe. No other European country has that many neighbours. Germany borders the North Sea, Denmark and the Baltic Sea to the north, Poland and the Czech Republic to the east, Austria and Switzerland to the south, France to the west and Luxembourg, Belgium and the Netherlands to the northwest. In the North Sea you can find the East Frisian Islands, Helgoland and some North Frisian Islands which also belong to Germany. In the Baltic Sea there are Fehmarn, Poel, Rügen, most of Usedom and some smaller islands.

The country is one of the most populous states in Europe.

The country covers an area of almost 350,000 km² which is divided from north to south into six major natural regions: the North German Lowlands, the Central European and South-West German Central Uplands, the Alpine foothills, the Alps and the maritime areas belonging to Germany. These regions were shaped in particular by the glaciers of the Quaternary Ice Age, around 2.5 million years ago, and by mountain formation, which took place over a period of 100 million years between the Cretaceous and Miocene periods.

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Geomorphology/Geology

The flat landscape of the north is interspersed with numerous lakes and marshes. The highest elevation is only just over 200 m. A popular destination here is the Mecklenburg Lake Plateau, where water lovers in particular get their money's worth.

The central European and south-west German low mountain range region is, as the name suggests, characterised by mountainous structures. The Volcanic Eifel or the Taunus, popular among hikers, are two of the mountain ranges found in this region.

There are also some well-known lakes in the Alpine foothills, such as Tegernsee and Lake Constance. The landscape is reminiscent of the geomorphological structures of the North German Plain, but the area of the greater region is several hundred metres larger than the area in the north. In addition to extensive woodland areas, the region is characterised by extensive green spaces which have been created and are being maintained through agricultural use. These pasture landscapes extend as far as the valleys of the Alps. In terms of surface area, the Alps are the smallest of all regions. However, the high mountains to be found here have altitudes between 1500 m and almost 3000 m. The Zugspitze is the highest mountain in Germany at just over 2900 m and a popular destination for tourists and adventurers.

Travel Tips and Trivia for Germany

Climate in Germany

In Germany, travellers will find a temperate climate. Throughout the north, summers are usually warm and winters cool, but not too cold. In southern and eastern Germany, the temperature differences between the seasons are much greater. The months from June to September are the warmest with average temperatures of 21 to 25°C. January is usually the coldest month of the year. A lot of rain falls especially in the winter months, but it can also rain more frequently in summer. In southern Germany, snow also falls in winter, especially in the high and low mountain regions.

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Flora and Fauna in Germany

Deciduous and coniferous forests can be found throughout Germany, with the tree species beech and oak making up the majority of the deciduous forests. In German forests, hikers can admire various species of mushrooms and ferns, such as the golden-root mushroom or the bracken fern, which feel very comfortable here. In most waters you can find fish like the trout and other aquatic inhabitants.

Depending on the region, nature lovers can observe wild animals such as roe deer, wild boar, fox, badger or various bird species. Red deer or beavers are less frequently seen. In recent years, wolves and lynx have also returned to Germany, having previously become extinct in the country.

For bird lovers, autumn is a particularly good time to travel, as this is the time when the migration of various bird species such as the crane or the Canada goose towards the south takes place.

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Social Geography of Germany

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