Highlights in Tanzania

Geography of Tanzania

Tanzania has a land area of 947,303 km². The country borders Kenya and Uganda to the north, Rwanda, Burundi and the Democratic Republic of Congo to the west, and Zambia, Malawi and Mozambique to the south. Tanzania is located on the east coast of Africa on the Indian Ocean. The coastline is 1,424 kilometers long. Many islands such as Zanzibar, Pemba and Mafia belong to Tanzania.
Mount Kilimanjaro is the highest mountain in Africa at 5,895 meters and part of it is in Tanzania. Lake Tanganyika is the lowest point in Africa and lies at 1,471 meters below sea level also in Tanzania. Three of Africa's largest lakes are partly in Tanzania: Lake Victoria, Lake Taganyika and Lake Nyasa.



Central Tanzania is a large plateau. The east coast is hot and humid, and the Zanzibar archipelago lies just offshore. Northeastern Tanzania consists of a mountainous region with Mount Meru, an active volcano, Mount Kilimanjaro, and the Usambara and Pare Mountain ranges. To the west of Kilimanjaro lies the Gregorian Rift. At the foot of the rift are many salt lakes. The rift also includes the crater highlands, which include the Ngorongoro Conservation Area and the Ngorongoro Crater. To the west of the crater highlands is the Serengeti National Park. Southeast of the national park is the Oldupai Gorge area, where many of the oldest hominid fossils and artifacts have been found.

To the northeast is Lake Victoria, the largest lake in Africa and the source of the Nile River. Upstream from the Kalambo Waterfall, a 235-meter waterfall on the border with Zambia and Tanzania, is one of Africa's most important archaeological sites.

Travel Tipps and Trivia for Tanzania

Climate in Tanzania

The climate varies greatly in Tanzania. In the highlands, temperatures range from 10 to 20 degrees during cold and hot periods. In the rest of the country, temperatures rarely fall below 20 degrees. Between November and February are the hottest months, and the coldest period is between May and August. The average temperature is 20 degrees.

There are two rainy seasons in Tanzania: one between October to April and the other between October to December and March to May. The first is in southern, central and western Tanzania, the second in the north of Lake Victoria to the east to the coast.

Flora and Fauna in Tanzania

Tanzania's fauna and flora is very diverse and is home to about 20 percent of the species of mammals in Africa. 21 national parks, reserves, one nature reserve and three marine parks can be found in Tanzania. The Ngorongoro Conservation Area is a World Heritage Site. In western Tanzania, Gombe Stream National Park, where Jane Goodall has been studying chimpanzee behavior since 1960. Tanzania has a great diversity of species: Serengeti National Park is home to white-bearded wildebeest, other cattle and zebras. Tanzania is home to 130 different species of amphibians and over 275 species of reptiles. Tanzania's wetlands are home to hippos, warthogs, elephants, crocodiles and many water birds such as flamingos.

In the north of the country, you will find Arusha National Park, which is home to elephants, leopards, giraffes, hyenas, blue monkeys and buffalo. Katavi National Park in the west is Tanzania's third largest national park. Here you will also find lions, antelopes and Nile crocodiles. Kilimanjaro National Park is climatically very cold and hot at the same time. The vegetation in the park includes dense mountain forests, mosses and lichens, and giant lobelia. Established in 1977, the park covers an area of 1,668 square kilometers and lies within the river and palustrine ecosystem.

The Serengeti National Park, the second largest in Tanzania, is the oldest and best known. It was established in 1951. The habitat, which borders Kenya and Lake Victoria to the west, is characterized by vast plains, savannahs, forested hills, large termite mounds, rivers and acacia forests. During the great wildebeest migration, about one million wildebeest migrate across the vast plains of the Serengeti in Tanzania and the Masai Mara in Kenya. Ruaha National Park is the largest in Tanzania, covering 20,226 square kilometers. The park consists of rugged, semi-arid bushveld, typical of central Tanzania in the Iringa region. The Ruaha River flows through the park. It is home to about 10,000 elephants, zebras, giraffes, impalas, waterbucks and other antelope species, cheetahs, striped and spotted hyenas, sable and roan antelopes, and large kudu with corkscrew horns (the park's emblem).


Social Geography of Tanzania

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