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India

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Geography of India

The Indian subcontinent takes up 3,300,000 km² of the continent of Asia, and is the seventh largest country on the planet. It is bordered by Pakistan, China, Nepal, Bhutan, Myanmar and Bangladesh. The capital of the country is New Delhi, which has approximately 16.3 million residents. Lofty mountain ranges dominate India’s landscape in several areas. The Himalayas form the natural border with the rest of Asia and stand astride the landscape of the the north of India. This mountain range contains a total of eight peaks in excess of 8000 m. India’s highest peak is Kangchenjunga, which reaches a remarkable 8598 m. The source of the Ganges, India’s most famous river, is in the southwestern part of the Himalayas. The river crosses India before flowing into the Bay of Bengal. Alongside the Himalayas, India is also home to the lowlands of the Ganges and Brahmaputra rivers, as well as the Highlands of Dekkan. The lowlands of the Ganges and Brahmaputra rivers are also known as the North Indian Plain or the Great Plains. This area contains both a fertile landscape and the Thar desert to the west, which is the driest region in India. The Highlands of Dekkan cover the entire southern region of India. They are located to the south of the Ganges lowlands. The Highlands of Dekkan also contain the well-known mountain range of the Western Ghats, which runs all the way to the coast.

Geomorphology/Geology

The mountain range of the Westghats extends up to 1,600 km through the states Maharashtra, Goa, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu. Its mean elevation is 900 m and its highest point with 2,695 m is called Anamudi. As a natural barrier, the water from heavy clouds comes down on the west side of its slopes. In consequence the climate in this area is tropical and hot. Moreover many short rivers and larger rivers like the Godavari and the Krishna arise from the east and west of the mountain range.

Travel Tipps and Trivia for India

Climate in India

As India is a huge country and its topography is quite irregular, also the climate varies a lot. Temperatures in the subtropical northern regions and central India change from 10-15°C in winter to about 40-50°C in summer. The tropical south is mostly influenced by the sea and temperatures are quite high throughout the year. In general India´s climate is majorly influenced by the Indian monsoon which brings rain from June to September and especially heavy rainfall to the west coast and the mountain slopes of the Himalaya in the northeast. On the contrary, the Thar desert is the driest region in India.

Flora and Fauna in India

India's biodiversity is as variable as its landscape and habitats. You can find tropical rainforest, bamboo forests and mangroves in the south, grassy steppes in dryer regions or mountain forests in the higher regions of the Himalaya. India is home to big cats like the Bengal tiger, the Indian leopard and also to the critically endangered Asiatic lion.
In contrast to those cats, crocodiles, numerous parrots, peacocks and kingfishers as well as several species of monkeys and in particular many langurs can be seen in the whole country. The tropical rainforests of the southern region are home to Indian elephants and also different species of snakes.

Social Geography of India

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